Extractions dents de sagesse

QUE SONT LES DENTS DE SAGESSE ?

Les dents de sagesse sont les troisièmes molaires. Elles poussent normalement entre 15 et 25 ans. Elles sont le plus souvent au nombre de quatre (deux en haut, deux en bas), mais il n’est pas rare qu’il n’en existe que trois, deux voire aucune.

Les dents de sagesse peuvent être :

  • totalement sorties ; on dit alors qu’elles sont sur arcade.
  • à moitié sorties ; on dit alors qu’elles sont enclavées.
  • totalement enfouies sous la gencive ; on dit alors qu’elles sont incluses.

QUAND FAUT-IL EXTRAIRE UNE DENT DE SAGESSE  ?

  • Lors d’un traitement orthodontique, car la poussée des dents de sagesse peut modifier le bon alignement des autres dents.
  • En cas de douleurs dues au blocage de la sortie de la dent de sagesse. Celles ressenties au niveau des articulations temporo-mandibulaires viennent parfois aussi après la modification de l’emplacement des autres dents.
  • Lorsque la poussée de la dent de sagesse fragilise la dent voisine, l’exposant ainsi à des risques de carie.
  • En cas d’infection, surtout si la couronne n’a fait que partiellement éruption. Il se forme alors un cul-de-sac gingival, dans lequel des débris alimentaires stagnent. Les bactéries pullulent, provoquant une inflammation. C’est la péricoronarite. Non traitée, cette affection peut dégénérer en abcès (présence de pus), voire en cellulite, c’est-à-dire en infection des tissus mous du visage.

COMMENT SE DÉROULE L’INTERVENTION   ?

L’extraction des dents de sagesse peut se pratiquer :

  • soit sous anesthésie locale. L’intervention se déroule alors au fauteuil, au cabinet, dans le cas d’extraction chirurgicale unitaire.
  • soit sous anesthésie générale dans le cas de l’extraction chirurgicale des quatre dents de sagesse, une hospitalisation sera alors nécessaire.

QUELLES SONT LES SUITES OPÉRATOIRES ?

Les suites opératoires comportent :

  • De petits saignements qui peuvent survenir au niveau des zones opérées pendant les 24 premières heures.
  • La douleur au niveau des zones opérées cède avec les antalgiques et anti-inflammatoires prescrits et disparaît en général en quelques jours.
  • L’œdème est fréquent. Il est imprévisible et varie d’une personne à l’autre. Il est volontiers plus marqué chez l’adolescent.
  • La limitation douloureuse de l’ouverture buccale est fréquente et s’estompe en quelques jours
  • Un traitement par des antibiotiques sera souvent nécessaire

11 comments on “Extractions dents de sagesse

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